First, elongation factors are involved in bringing aminoacyl-transfer RNA to the ribosome during protein synthesis. Second, an elongation factor is involved in translocation, the step in elongation at which the peptidyl-tRNA is moved from one ribosomal site to another as the messenger RNA moves through the ribosome. Both steps result in the hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate (GTP), and the conformation of the elongation factors changes depending on whether they are bound to GTP or to guanosine diphosphate. The elongation factors of archaea and bacteria (both are types of prokaryotes) and eukaryotes are similar in structure and function, as are the steps in protein biosynthesis in which they participate.

  • This includes in-depth characterization of RNA Polymerase II pausing in each deletion strain and an analysis of sense and antisense transcription events.
  • We investigated how each factor regulates nascent transcription, production of antisense transcripts, and pausing across gene bodies.
  • To determine the effects of removing transcriptional regulators on antisense transcription, we visualized the spread of log2-fold changes vs wild-type of these antisense transcripts (Figure 2C).
  • Thank you for resubmitting your work entitled „Transcription elongation is finely tuned by dozens of regulatory factors“ for further consideration by eLife.
  • Since an inferior planet is well within the area of Earth’s orbit around the Sun, observation of its elongation should not pose that much a challenge (compared to deep-sky objects, for example).
  • Greatest elongations of a planet happen periodically, with a greatest eastern elongation followed by a greatest western elongation, and vice versa.

Opposition is defined as the moment when the apparent ecliptic longitude of any such object versus the Sun (seen from earth) differs by (is) 180°; it thus ignores how much the object differs from the plane of the Earth’s orbit. For example, Pluto, whose orbit is highly inclined to the essentially matching plane of the planets, has maximum elongation much less than 180° at opposition. The six-word term „maximum apparent elongation from the sun“ provides a fuller definition of elongation. These values are approximate, because (as mentioned above) the planets do not have perfectly circular, coplanar orbits.

Dictionary Entries Near elongation

The CAF-1 complex is characterized as a chromatin assembly factor that promotes nucleosome assembly on newly synthesized DNA, sets the size of nucleosome depleted regions, and suppresses divergent transcription (Fennessy and Owen-Hughes, 2016; Kaufman et al., 1997; Marquardt et al., 2014). It is tempting to speculate that loss of the CAF-1 complex leads to poorly deposited nucleosomes near SS, which alters Pol II pausing and co-transcriptional splicing. In this manuscript the authors have conducted native elongation transcript sequencing on yeast strains deleted for one of 41 different transcription, chromatin modifying and RNA processing factors. They find that a large fraction of these deletions affect transcription elongation and RNA Pol II pausing indicating that elongation is carefully regulated by many factors. All references to “predicting pauses” have been changed to “classifying pauses”.

  • In total, 51 chromatin and DNA features were compiled for all pause loci (Supplementary file 5; Chiu et al., 2016; Oberbeckmann et al., 2019; Pelechano et al., 2013; Turner and Mathews, 2010; Umeyama and Ito, 2018; Vinayachandran et al., 2018; Weiner et al., 2015).
  • The six-word term „maximum apparent elongation from the sun“ provides a fuller definition of elongation.
  • Percent elongation is the percentage that a material stretches beyond its original length before it actually breaks.
  • Elongation at break is the measured elongation of a sample of material at the point at which it breaks.

The shape is called a dumbbell, as it is roughly oblong but with wider ends (for gripping) and a thinner strip in the middle, which will elongate when pulled. Elongation is the measurable tendency of a material to stretch when under strain. Engineers use a standardized testing procedure and a dumbbell-shaped test sample to evaluate a given material’s characteristic elongation behavior. The sample’s elongation is expressed as a percentage — its increase in length is divided by the original length and multiplied by 100 to calculate this value. The tensile strength of a material is how much pulling stress (or tensile stress) a material can take before failing (breaking, deformation, etc.). The presence in the genome of more than one active copy of EF-1α provides an opportunity for independent regulation of expression via different pathways, and may minimize the potentially dangerous effects of mutations.

Chemical Composition Part 1: Proteins

Another factor contributing to this inconsistency is orbital inclination, in which each planet’s orbital plane is slightly tilted relative to a reference plane, like the ecliptic and invariable planes. Unfortunately, many histone chaperones, including the ones mentioned, are essential, or their absence leads to extremely slow growth. The reproducibility of the experiments was carefully assessed (Figure S5A & B) and the use of the irreproducibility discovery rate (IDR) with clear cutoffs sets clear quantitative standards for each dataset. It is clear that some of the knockout strains have a low overall impact on pausing and this is discussed through comparison of the median TSS pausing index.


Percent elongation is the percentage that a material stretches beyond its original length before it actually breaks. Elongation is measured as the change in length in a material sample, divided by its original length, multiplied by 100 to convert it to a percentage. Yes, there are specially designed devices for measuring the elongation of materials according to international standards like ASTM D412. These testing systems have a number of components, each of which is intended for certain material tests. Elongation in biology is a part of the DNA translation process, where proteins are built from RNA that has been transcribed from DNA. More specifically, elongation is the second phase of translation, occurring between the initiation and termination of the process.

Is Elongation an Important Measure in 3D Printing Materials?

This substitution is unidirectional, since T1 from mammals will not substitute for bacterial T factor on bacterial ribosomes (Krisko et al., 1969). This protein, which contains two-nucleotide-binding sites, appears to be required for the nucleotide-dependent release of the nonacylated tRNA from the ribosomal E site. As this protein is an essential gene product in yeast, it is surprising that an equivalent activity has not been identified in other eukaryotes. However, it has been noted in vitro that only Elongation reactions using yeast ribosomes demonstrate the eEF3 requirement, and thus this requirement for eEF3 would appear to reflect unusual properties of the yeast ribosome compared to other eukaryotic ribosomes.

However, in general, changes in 5’ vs 3’ pause sites in deletion strains were not correlated (Figure 4E). Rpb4 is a Pol II subunit that dissociates with the complex at the ends of genes (Mosley et al., 2013) and is responsible for sustained transcription elongation through the 3’ ends of genes (Runner et al., 2008). Thus, Rpb4 prevents Pol II from pausing at the 3’ regions of genes that may protect from premature termination before the canonical 3’ cleavage site is transcribed.

How To Calculate the Elongation of a Material?

A measure of the absolute antisense transcription levels in WT and mutant strains should be attempted. While it may be difficult to compare such measurement across strains, it would – in principle – be a more accurate measure of antisense transcription. I suspect that most conclusions will remain, but the current analysis is simply not sound. Thank you for submitting the paper „Dynamics of transcription elongation are finely tuned by dozens of regulatory factors“ for consideration by eLife. Your article has been reviewed by 3 peer reviewers, including Jerry L Workman as the Reviewing Editor and Reviewer #1, and the evaluation has been overseen by a Senior Editor. Elongation is the amount that a material permanently lengthens when experiencing a tensile force (strain).


The level of EF-1α expression can also change during aging, e.g., an irreversible decrease in the amount of active EF-1α is found in aging fibroblasts and in some tissues (146–148). Whether the additional copy of the EF-1α gene extends the life span has been evaluated by several groups, although the data obtained are inconsistent (149,150). factor P (EF-P) is an essential protein that stimulates the formation of the first peptide bond in protein synthesis. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.

The first part of this article deals with the elongation factors in bacteria, and subsequently the factors found in other types of organisms will be discussed. The Churchman lab are leading experts in NET-Seq method development and data analysis and it is likely that the data produced for this study are of high quality. The major weakness in the context of this current study is that this study is NET-Seq focused with a lack of follow up experiments. This concern is partially mitigated by the breadth of the work that was performed. However, some data focuses on the reproducibility of specific events, such as Pol II pausing, and only two replicates were performed for each mutant. In fact, Figure S5A suggests that pausing reproducibility across the two replicates may be poor.

  • Our findings collectively show that a diverse array of factors regulate transcription elongation by precisely balancing Pol II activity.
  • To remove the pause sites that do not correspond across replicates, we used a stringent irreproducible discovery rate (IDR) analysis (IDR of 1%).
  • In this study, „Dynamics of transcription elongation are finely tuned by dozens of regulatory factors“ the authors present an impressive amount of native elongating transcript sequencing (NET-Seq) data and perform in-depth analysis of the dataset.
  • „Dynamics of transcription elongation“ suggest that elongation parameters (speed and processivity) were assayed, which is not the case.
  • In yeast, AGA is by far the most popular codon for arginine, and this is also the case in potato (Solanum tuberosum), soybean (Glycine max), tobacco, and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).
  • As the pulling stress reaches, and then passes, the tensile strength, the material fractures or breaks.

The aminoglycoside antibiotic kanamycin also inhibits translocation, and this antibiotic can be used to select mutants of EF-G (although these do not result in high-level resistance to the drug). Thiostrepton is a modified peptide antibiotic that binds to a site on 23S rRNA and inhibits elongation factor-dependent reactions in both archaea and bacteria. For this statement, the deletion of an acetyltransferase will decrease acetylation whereas the deletion of members of the Rpd3S-Set2 pathway increase acetylation. As a consequence it is recommended to state „emphasizing the role of acetylation / deacetylation in antisense transcription“ for clarity. 2) I am concerned about the use of the antisense/sense ratio as a measure of antisense transcription.

The expression of EF-1α occurs in brain, placenta, lungs, liver, kidney, pancreas, and in all cultured cell lines analyzed, but not in heart and skeletal muscle (137). Thank you for resubmitting your work entitled „Transcription elongation is finely tuned by dozens of regulatory factors“ for further consideration by eLife. Your revised article has been evaluated by James Manley (Senior Editor) and a Reviewing Editor. Xometry makes no representation or warranty of any kind, be it expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, completeness, or validity of the information. Any performance parameters, geometric tolerances, specific design features, quality and types of materials, or processes should not be inferred to represent what will be delivered by third-party suppliers or manufacturers through Xometry’s network. Buyers seeking quotes for parts are responsible for defining the specific requirements for those parts.

What is the meaning of elongation growth?

(general) The state, act, or process of lengthening. Supplement. In general, the term elongation refers to the state, act, or process of lengthening. In biology, the term often denotes to a biological process where a biological entity is lengthened.